Vitamins Review, Classification, Importance and Diseases

Vitamins Role in healthy body

vitamins

You feel fresh, energetic and enthusiastic after taking particular food. What is main reason behind that?Taking diet supplemented with adequate nutrients has direct link with proper body functioning and healthy body. What are vitamins? Vitamins are the organic compound that humans can’t synthesize in body; essentially required for healthy body working. Vitamins are the micro-nutrients human body require for proper functioning particularly for growth, development, fighting disease, sustainable working environment of human body and reproduction. From where human take vitamins? Most of the vitamins are taken from diet particularly fruits and vegetables. So we can define vitamins as

“The class of organic compounds supplemented to human body via food or dietary supplements for adequate and accurate body working required in minute quantities.”

Types and Classes of Vitamins

There are 13 vitamins known to human for smooth running of life functioning. The daily life long processes can be adequately accomplished by taking the recommended dose of vitamins through diet specifically vegies, eggs, meat, fish, milk, cheese and fruits. Vitamins are divided into two sub classes

  • Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Water Soluble Vitamins

Fat Soluble Vitamins

These are the class of vitamins that are absorbed and stored in fat; their deficiency is harmful but excessive amount can also causes serious problems. Vitamins A, D, E and K are included in fat soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins are easy to store in body in comparison to water soluble vitamin and are stored in body with the help of fat cells and are stored in fatty tissues and key lipid storage organ ‘Liver’.

Different Types of Fat Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A

It is Fat soluble Vitamin named chemically as Retinol or Retinal linked with the healthy teeth, bones and soft tissues of body, better skin, immune system and vision. Vitamin A deficiency can cause serious health deficiencies associated with vision and causes night blindness. Major Sources of vitamin A are milky products like cheese, butter; green leafy vegetables, beta carotene from carrot etc.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is crucial fat soluble vitamin; chemically called as ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol needed for healthy bones and helps in calcium absorption stored in bones. People usually called Vitamin D as “sunshine vitamin” due to the fact that cholecalciferol can be synthesized by body after being in sunshine. Seeing the dietary recommendations enough vitamin D can be made by body after being 15-30 minutes in sunshine three times a day. It is very difficult to take Vitamin D through diet but taking fortified milk, egg yolk, fish liver oil and milky products like yogurt, cheese etc. Deficiency of vitamin D can cause serious bone related disorders rickets in young children and osteoporosis in middle aged and aged men and women.

Vitamin E

One of the fat soluble vitamin is Vitamin K chemically named as Tocopherols or tocotrienols functioning in forming erythrocytes commonly called as Red Blood Cells (RBC’s), acts as anti-oxidant and proper usage of vitamin D. sources of vitamin E includes green vegetables, egg, nuts and dry fruits and whole grain wheat. The deficiency of Vitamin E can cause Hemolytic Anemia in newborns which are destruction of RBC’s.

Vitamin K

What will be your response if blood doesn’t clot after injury? Isn’t it blessings in disguise the blood clotting factor? How blood clot forms and what are the key components linked with blood clot formation?

Vitamin K chemically known as Phylloquinone and menaquinones is fat soluble vitamin linked with blood clotting. This vitamin can be taken through diet and also synthesized in our body by the intestinal bacteria. The deficiency of vitamin K can cause bleeding disorders. Some key sources of Vitamin K are green leafy vegetables, fish, liver and egg etc.

Water Soluble Vitamins

Water soluble vitamins are the type of vitamins that are stored in aqueous environment of the cell and are required in excessive amount due to the fast disposal from body through urine with exception of vitamin B12 that can be stored in liver for long time. There are nine known water soluble vitamins but they are divided into 2 sub categories.

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin C

It is water soluble vitamin chemically called as Ascorbic Acid. It acts as anti-oxidant, immune system booster, key role as a co-enzyme in protein metabolism, healthy bones and teeth and maintains sufficient supply of iron in body. Key sources of vitamin C are citrus fruit, fresh vegetables, potatoes and fruits. Deficiency of vitamin C can leads to megablostic anemia.

Vitamin B 1 (Thiamin)

It is a type of water soluble vitamin chemically called as Thiamin required for optimal body functioning and associated with other B complex vitamins in metabolism and absorption of energy. It is also linked for optimal heart and nervous system as it is linked to provide constant supply of energy. It is helpful for mother as they breastfeed the infants and mother to be. The inadequate supply of Thiamin can cause mild headache, dizziness and nausea. It is integral component of vegetables and meat. Though reports of vitamin B 1 deficiency are very not much reported but alcoholic and old aged people are found deficient of vitamin B1.

Vitamin B 2 (Riboflavin)

It is part of B complex vitamin a sub class of water soluble vitamins chemically known as Riboflavin is in link with other vitamins of subclass B complex helps in protein and carbohydrates metabolism. It is also helpful in absorption of vital nutrients zinc, iron and calcium and growth and development. Potent sources of riboflavin are milk and milk made products, leafy green vegetables, beans, eggs and meats. Deficiency of Riboflavin can leads to mild skin related problems and itchy eyes.

Vitamin B 3 (Niacin)

It is water soluble vitamin chemically called as Niacin aims to control cholesterol, healthy skin, healthy nerves, DNA repair and metabolism and energy. People deficient in vitamin B 3 may feel tiredness, inflammation of skin and nerve endings. Some key sources of Niacin are egg, meat, beans and yeasts extracts.

Vitamin B 5 (Pantothenic Acid)

One of the water soluble vitamin B 5 known chemically as pantothenic acid is important for food metabolism, and optimal functioning of hormones and cholesterol. Deficiency of Vitamin B 5 may cause paresthesia, fatigue and tiredness, dizziness, vomiting and cramping. Major sources of pantothenic acid are meat, eggs, milk and milk made items and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine)

Why some dietitians recommend taking dry fruits and nuts on regular basis? The answer is very simple, as they are enriched with vitamin B 6. Vitamin B 6 helps in better mental health, stabilizing mood protein metabolism and biosynthesis. Increased uptake of proteins can helps in elevated level of pyridoxine. It also helps in biosynthesis of RBC’s. Person deficient in pyridoxine can leads to nerve and tissue damage, brain and spinal cord problems and protein deficiencies. Major chunk of vitamin B 6 can be found in meat, nuts and dry fruits, eggs, Bananas and beans.

Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin)

It is chemically known as Cobalamin an important contributor in DNA replication and regulations of key nerve cells with proper body and brain functioning. Lack of vitamin B 12 can cause serious nervous system linked problems and pernicious anemia. Sources of cobalamin includes eggs, red meat, shellfish, fish and milk made products.

Folic Acid

Have you ever think why some of the gynecologist recommends folic acid tablets? The answer is that a mother to be has to take enough amount of folate during the pregnancy; low folate in pregnant women’s associated with birth defects like spina bifida. It is linked with vitamin B 12 for red blood cells formation DNA formation and cell and tissue development. It is part of different food items like leafy green vegetables fortified with different food supplements.

Biotin

Essential part of enzyme associated with metabolism of carbs and proteins. It can be synthesized by body through the bacteria in intestine. It can be found in egg yolk liver and green and leafy vegetables. Deficiency of biotin can be linked to dermatitis, enteritis or inflammation of intestine.

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